Saturday, March 14, 2020
take on more specific intentions. Indigence states a severely straitened circumstance as in assets. Penury makes a suggestion at a restricting or repressive scarcity of funds. Want and destitution allude to a profound poverty, which endanger oneÃ¢â¬â¢s physical safety. The examples of so... Free Essays on Definition Of Proverty Free Essays on Definition Of Proverty In WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary, poverty means Ã¢â¬Å"the state of one who lacks a usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessionsÃ¢â¬ . Poverty by any means is devastating. The general definition of poverty is a Ã¢â¬Å"complete lack of something.Ã¢â¬ One can lack many things from social poise to spiritual guidance. Material means are only the tip of the iceberg. It is conceivable for a person to be poverty stricken and unaware of it. The cultural effects of poverty are socially, economically, spiritually, and mentally devastating to the general population. I was raised to believe poverty is not only materialistic. One can have everything and still be poor. Mental poverty is the complete lack of thought and formal education. Social poverty implies a complete lack of social encounters and refinement. Spiritual poverty implies a total indigence in the matters of spiritual guidance, divine faith, and fellowship of community. Economical poverty is a lack of material means needed for survival. Many dictionary definitions can be very misleading. They often lack the depth needed for understanding of vocabulary. American society often creates alternative meanings for many words in the English language. Poverty often has a social definition filled with barbarians. People often confused people of low financial resources with uncivilized savages. I personally find that social stigma to be alarming. One cannot judge someone by purely tangible possessions. People are more than just money, social status or political power. Ã¢â¬Å"Poverty may cover a range from extreme want of necessities to an absence of material comfortsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"PovertyÃ¢â¬ ). Many words take on more specific intentions. Indigence states a severely straitened circumstance as in assets. Penury makes a suggestion at a restricting or repressive scarcity of funds. Want and destitution allude to a profound poverty, which endanger oneÃ¢â¬â¢s physical safety. The examples of so...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
FINAL EXAM - Essay Example These days a lot of weapons with large magazine capacities are available on the market. The gun models used for this most recent Aurora shooting have been revealed by the local police chief but it is claimed that talking about the gun model just happens to be a distraction as Ã¢â¬Å"when it comes to weaponry and mass shootings, the issue to focus on is magazine capacityÃ¢â¬ (Barrett). Now though the gun-control advocates might shift focus to call for controlling the large magazine capacity weapons at a national level, another sad bit is that it is quite tough to ensure that the names of all the emotionally and mentally sick people exist in the background-check system that one goes through when buying guns. However, laws should be passed to limit gun possession further as Ã¢â¬Å"unstable individuals should not have access to any kind of weaponÃ¢â¬ (Thornburgh). Concluding, this much becomes clear that the pattern of opening fire in a public place has not led to successful gun control policies which could be implemented nationally. Instead of obsessing about which gun models to confiscate and which to sell, focus should be shifted to the magazine capacity and identification of the mentally sick people. Barrett, Paul M. Ã¢â¬Å"After Aurora: Gun Control, One More Time.Ã¢â¬ BloombergBusinessweek. 20 Jul. 2012. Web. 14 Aug. 2012.
Monday, February 10, 2020
Tests of Intelligence - Assignment Example ildren between the age group 6 to 16, meant to generate scores of IQ based on a comprehensive test model that includes ten core subtests and five supplemental tests. All these tests are verbal, and each of them carries equal weightage. The main testing spheres include verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory. Application of WSIC in the sphere of IQ testing has been more successful than in clinical testing for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other learning disabilities in children. This test was founded by Alfred Binet, and has undergone many modifications, the present one being 5th edition. This intelligence test is modeled to test using both verbal and nonverbal methods, aimed to assess reasoning, knowledge, analytical reasoning, visual-spatial processing and memory. The SB-5 is proven to be better in terms of assessing individuals and is more reliable (Becker, 2003). Based on a study conducted by Watkins et al. (1998), it was inferred that the WSIC test cannot distinguish between children with learning disabilities and those without disabilities. Further, the test could not predict academic achievement among children with learning disabilities. In this regard, the SB-5 is more suitable as it distinguishes children with different levels of intelligences and learning abilities. Research indicated weak reliability scores for WSIC, with low internal consistency reliability criterion; inconsistent results across time were also observed, thus complicating individual decisions and assessments. Owing to the deviation of subtest measurements from normative methods, ipsative methods based on transformation to person-relative metrics have been opted. However, these are not empirical, and are intuitive; because of this, the results so obtained are psychometrically incongruent. Instability of subtests measurements makes the test less reliable. Statistical differences of group mean scores will not help in
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The primary signs of a great preschool Essay The use of Learning Center Approaches (LCA) in early education has for long been the subject of ardent debate. Teachers still lack unanimous agreement as for the relevance and usefulness of LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s in classroom. LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s have a number of advantages and are also characterized by a set of serious pitfalls; however, these types of learning activities can be rationally used to enhance the overall quality of the learning process at school, offering children a unique opportunity to integrate their personal experiences with the curriculum-based objectives. Statistical research suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"in 1965, just 5% of 3-year-olds attended preschool or nursery school. Today, 41% of 3-year-olds regularly attend a center-based programÃ¢â¬ (NAEYC, 1995). As a result, the process of developing more effective curriculum strategies becomes more responsible and requires teachers to satisfy individual needs of children. When dozens of children are divided into several learning groups, it is always difficult to organize the learning process in a way to account their individual peculiarities and needs; that is why teachers have come to realizing the importance of LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s as the effective tools of individual preschool and school learning. One of the primary signs of a great preschool is when children spend most of their time playing and interacting with other peers (NAEYC, 1995); furthermore, for a kindergarten and preschool to be an effective tool of learning, children need to have Ã¢â¬Å"access to various activities throughout the day such as block building, pretend play, picture books, paints and other art materials, and table toys such as legos, pegboards, and puzzlesÃ¢â¬ (NAEYC, 1996). In these difficult learning contexts, the LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s may supply teachers with an opportunity to develop an unlimited number of individual tasks and activities that will engage children into active learning. In general terms, Ã¢â¬Å"learning center refers to a place (usually a small area) within the classroom where children interact with materials and other children to develop learnings and skillsÃ¢â¬ (Bickart Jablon, 1999). Thus, LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s facilitate the process of achieving the two basic goals of effective education: delivering knowledge to children and satisfying their individual learning needs. LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s allow teachers to organize the classroom space in a way that makes children interested in what they are doing, and integrates their personal experiences and talents with the need to achieve the basic curriculum objectives. An LCA classroom looks like a space divided into small areas defined by shelves and tables; materials are attractively displayed so that children are able to make a reasonable choice. Self-directing charts help children find the area of interest and decide where children would like to work. In these classrooms, children are usually divided into small groups, with each group focused on a particular activity and moving on to the next center as soon as the activity is finished. The use of LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s is advantageous in several ways: 1. LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s promote the sense of autonomy among children. Piaget states that autonomy is the ultimate goal of education (Bickart Jablon, 1999). Ã¢â¬Å"Autonomy is developed because children are active; they learn at their own pace; they make choices; they are self-directed rather than teacher-directedÃ¢â¬ (NAEYC, 1995). 2. In LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s, children learn by interacting with real objects; regardless whether the child participates in a table game, or chooses to be an actor in a dramatic play, all these activities move children closer to the real world, providing them with objective and truthful knowledge about reality. 3. In LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s, children are required to verbalize their oral experiences, to speak, to communicate, and to express their needs and concerns to teachers and other children. As a result, LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s become indispensable elements of effective reading, writing, and literacy education. The use of LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s is particularly important to enhance childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s reading and writing skills. NAYEC (1998b) suggest that Ã¢â¬Å"with the increasing variation among young children in our programs and schools, teaching today has become more challenging. [Ã¢â¬ ¦] Classes include both children with identified disabilities and children with exceptional abilitiesÃ¢â¬ , and all groups of children should have equal access to the learning opportunities in class. LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s provide children and teachers with a chance to minimize literacy-related disparities in learning, and to guarantee that all children regardless the specific level of their reading and writing proficiency are able to achieve standard curriculum objectives. The use of LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s helps align the standard requirements to early childhood education programs with the benefits of the individualized learning process: LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s combine developmentally appropriate curriculum and instruction with responsiveness to cultural diversity and strong professional development opportunities (NAEYC, 1998a). Ultimately, LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s are extremely flexible in addressing the changing requirements to instruction and maintaining stable organizational relationships between teachers, families, and children. The problem is in that LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s may not always be easy to organize; teachers and education professionals require extensive knowledge and skills to guarantee that LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s address specific educational needs of children in class, and help them develop reliable communication linkages with teachers and other children. LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s represent a kind of education philosophy, with commitment to individualization and loyalty to constructed knowledge in its center. However, to turn this philosophy into a relevant tool of childÃ¢â¬â¢s education, teachers should be prepared to working with room arrangement and room organization, to monitoring center choices and governing children in the process of their interaction with LCA materials. While teacher roles in LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s are limited to those of facilitators, that does not mean that teachers are no longer responsible for the learning outcomes. On the contrary, assessment, planning, set-up, interaction, and arbitration turn into the five central teacher responsibilities while children are making their choices and are trying to integrate their personal experiences with the learning needs in class. LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s can promote effective learning through the variety of educational strategies, including art, blocks, discovery, dramatic play, library, muscle, music, and table games. Art centers help children express themselves; art centers teach children to evaluate their art skills and the art skills others. Art centers successfully combine cognitive skills with aesthetics and language, helping child develop several cognitive skills simultaneously. Blocks provide children with the constructive vision of reality; in blocks LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s, children are offered a chance to explore their experiences and perceptions about reality.. Discovery LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s are integrally linked to science: children make scientific solutions and have almost unlimited opportunities for exploring the major scientific discoveries. Dramatic play learning centers are the relevant tools teaching children to socialize and interact on the scene. In other words, dramatic play is an art of pretending. Pretending is the link between the abstract and real that further leads children to realizing the difference between their realities and their fantasies. Literacy LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s are the central elements of effective education. Literacy is the key to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s success in all major disciplines, and literacy LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s provide children with immediate access to reading, writing, communication, and discussion. Library centers are integrally linked to literacy circles: Ã¢â¬Å"many children are not exposed to literature in their homes, severely limiting their print knowledge. The library center provides these children with regular and active interactions with printÃ¢â¬ (Bickart Jablon, 1999). Muscle center helps children balance their physical and mental activities. Music centers organize children into small listening groups, where young learners are actively engaged into various types of group activities (e. g. , singing). Finally, table games teach children to follow the already established rules. Table games form a new vision of discipline and help children realize the importance of discipline in other subjects and centers. Table games are used to develop logical thinking and teach children to use their analytical skills. Objectively, LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s may become less effective due to the fact that teachers are not always able to evaluate their roles and potential in various group activities. While teachers are expected to facilitate the process of learning, children may not adequately react to independence and autonomy they have in LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s. The boundaries of autonomy may often be blurred, turning independence into chaos. Games should be reasonably combined with discipline; teachers should be able to monitor all learning centers at once; ultimately, the structure of LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s should be changed at least once in several weeks, to guarantee that children are able to reveal their full learning potential. Despite these difficulties, LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s remain an effective tool of learning, promoting autonomy of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s decision-making, and providing children with unlimited opportunities for applying their skills and knowledge in practice. LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s reflect the need for giving children sufficient freedom of choice, with this freedom being closely tied to and reasonably limited by a set of predetermined curriculum objectives. Conclusion The use of learning center environments is justified by the need to provide children with more autonomy during the class, and to help children use their talents in studies. The design and construction of LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s may be time consuming, and teachers require extensive knowledge and skills to promote continuous learning. Although public school teachers frequently lack sufficient space and are not always able to develop structured LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s, learning center approaches foster creativity and encourage the child to explore the hidden facets of knowledge in class. LCAÃ¢â¬â¢s promote unlimited opportunities for communication, socialization, and interaction between children; as a result, children become better prepared to applying new knowledge in various real-life contexts. References Bickart, T. Jablon, J. (1999). Building the primary classroom: a complete guide to teaching and learning. Teaching Strategies, Inc. NAEYC. (1995). 10 signs of a great preschool. Retrieved November 15, 2008 from http://www. naeyc. org/ece/1996/01. pdf NAEYC. (1996). Top 10 signs of a good kindergarten classroom. Retrieved November 15, 2008 from http://www. naeyc. org/ece/1996/12. pdf NAEYC. (1998a). Guidelines for developmentally appropriate practices. Retrieved November 15, 2008 from http://www. naeyc. org/ece/1998/05. pdf NAEYC. (1998b). Learning to read and write: developmentally appropriate practices for young children. Retrieved November 15, 2008 from http://www. naeyc. org/about/positions/pdf/PSREAD98. PDF
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
When World war 1 finally came to an end on November 11 1918, politicians had to work out a lasting peace so that no war like that would ever happen again. The treaty of Versailles was a peace treaty that was made by the main representatives of nations - Big 4(America, Italy, France, Great Britain) and was put into place after the ending of World War 1 to ensure peace throughout the nations or the world. Although the peace treaty was initially intended to establish long lasting peace, it was extremely unfair for Germany as it was strip of its war-making power, punished by losing territory, extreme military restrictions and placed sole responsibility for the war. Most of the defects of the treaty of Versailles can be blamed on the one-sided intentions and prejudice views by the decision makers, The Allied countries. This made the treaty unfair from the beginning, as it meant the big three could negotiate the conditions of the treaty to increase their personal benefit. For France, This was mainly because of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71. French Prime minister Georges Clemenceau felt that France had been humiliated and was burning to restore its reputation and crucially gain back the rich industrial land of Alsace and Lorraine which Germany had won of her. Although Britain had not been attacked directly like France was, the earlier arms race of military sources before the war started between these two nations had led to the consideration of struggle for colonial domination for Britain. In addition, the British prime minister David Lloyd George was also concerned with the preservation of the British Empire and the risk of future Germa n invasion. As a result, together with France, they forced Germany in the Treaty of Versai... ...se, left a legacy of bitterness and hatred in the hearts of the German citizens. Overall, despite the fact that world war one was a devastation to the entire Europe, which though Germany was wrongfully held accounted for in the Treaty of Versailles. That wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really a treaty at all and in another words, GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s so-called punishment for having the biggest contributions for the war. The treaty had overly weakened Germany and gave the victory countries more economic benefits and power mainly on the west. Instead of having Germany to be blamed for sole responsibility of the war by stripping away almost everything from Germany so that it is impossible for them to ever rise again, the allies should have put into thought of maintaining a good diplomatic relationship with them and accept the fact that each country had at least some contributions and fault to the war. Essay -- When World war 1 finally came to an end on November 11 1918, politicians had to work out a lasting peace so that no war like that would ever happen again. The treaty of Versailles was a peace treaty that was made by the main representatives of nations - Big 4(America, Italy, France, Great Britain) and was put into place after the ending of World War 1 to ensure peace throughout the nations or the world. Although the peace treaty was initially intended to establish long lasting peace, it was extremely unfair for Germany as it was strip of its war-making power, punished by losing territory, extreme military restrictions and placed sole responsibility for the war. Most of the defects of the treaty of Versailles can be blamed on the one-sided intentions and prejudice views by the decision makers, The Allied countries. This made the treaty unfair from the beginning, as it meant the big three could negotiate the conditions of the treaty to increase their personal benefit. For France, This was mainly because of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71. French Prime minister Georges Clemenceau felt that France had been humiliated and was burning to restore its reputation and crucially gain back the rich industrial land of Alsace and Lorraine which Germany had won of her. Although Britain had not been attacked directly like France was, the earlier arms race of military sources before the war started between these two nations had led to the consideration of struggle for colonial domination for Britain. In addition, the British prime minister David Lloyd George was also concerned with the preservation of the British Empire and the risk of future Germa n invasion. As a result, together with France, they forced Germany in the Treaty of Versai... ...se, left a legacy of bitterness and hatred in the hearts of the German citizens. Overall, despite the fact that world war one was a devastation to the entire Europe, which though Germany was wrongfully held accounted for in the Treaty of Versailles. That wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really a treaty at all and in another words, GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s so-called punishment for having the biggest contributions for the war. The treaty had overly weakened Germany and gave the victory countries more economic benefits and power mainly on the west. Instead of having Germany to be blamed for sole responsibility of the war by stripping away almost everything from Germany so that it is impossible for them to ever rise again, the allies should have put into thought of maintaining a good diplomatic relationship with them and accept the fact that each country had at least some contributions and fault to the war.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behaviour of employees in the work spot, normally both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance. Performance here refers to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s job. It indicates how well an individual is fulfilling the job demands. The purpose of performance appraisal is to update the worker on his progress, gauge his behavior and performance, praise good work, and note opportunities for improvement. A poorly conducted appraisal could cause the worker to lose morale, but a constructive performance appraisal can encourage him to go above and beyond the call of duty. People differ in their abilities and their aptitudes. There is always some difference between the quality and quantity of the same work on the same job being done by two different people. Performance appraisals of Employees are necessary to understand each employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities, competencies and relative merit and worth for the organization. Performance appraisal rates the employees in terms of their performance. The history of performance appraisal can be dated back to the 20th century and then to the second world war when the merit rating was used for the first time. An employer evaluating their employees is a very old concept. Performance appraisals are an indispensable part of performance measurement. Performance appraisal is necessary to measure the performance of the employees and the organization to check the progress towards the desired goals and aims. The latest mantra being followed by organizations across the world being Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"get paid according to what you contributeÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â the focus of the organizations is turning to performance management and specifically to individual performance. Performance appraisal helps to rate the performance of the employees and evaluate their contribution towards the organizational goals. If the process of performance appraisals is formal and properly structured, it helps the employees to clearly understand their roles and responsibilities and give direction to the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. It helps to align the individual performances with the organizational goals and also review their performance. Performance appraisal systems began as simple methods of income justification. That is, appraisal was used to decide whether or not the salary or wage of an individual employee was justified. The process was firmly linked to material outcomes. If an employee's performance was found to be less than ideal, a cut in pay would follow. On the other hand, if their performance was better than the supervisor expected, a pay rise was in order. Little consideration was given to the developmental possibilities of appraisal, It was felt that a cut in pay, or a rise, should provide the only required impetus for an employee to either improve or continue to perform well.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Heres how writing without rules can help us overcome writers block. If the prospect of having to write makes you uneasy, consider how one student has learned to cope with the problem: When I hear the word compose, I go berserk. How can I make something out of nothing? Thats not to imply that I have nothing upstairs, just no special talent for organizing thoughts and putting them down on paper. So instead of composing, I simply jot, jot, jot and scribble, scribble, scribble. Then I try to make sense of it all. This practice of jotting and scribbling is called freewritingÃ¢â¬âthat is, writing without rules. If you find yourself searching for a writing topic, start by jotting down the first thoughts that come to mind, no matter how trivial or disconnected they may appear. If you already have at least a general idea of what you will be writing about, put down your first thoughts on that subject. How to Freewrite For five minutes, write non-stop: dont lift your fingers from the keyboard or your pen from the page. Just keep writing. Dont stop to ponder or make corrections or look up a words meaning in the dictionary. Just keep writing. While you are freewriting, forget the rules of formal English. Because you are writing only for yourself at this point, you dont have to worry about sentence structures, spelling or punctuation, organization or clear connections. (All those things will come later.) If you find yourself stuck for something to say, just keep repeating the last word you have written, or write, Im stuck, Im stuck until a fresh thought emerges. After a few minutes, the results may not look pretty, but you will have started writing. Using Your Freewriting What should you do with your freewriting? Well, eventually youll delete it or toss it away. But first, read it over carefully to see if you can find a keyword or phrase or maybe even a sentence or two that can be developed into a longer piece of writing. Freewriting may not always give you specific material for a future essay, but it will help you get into the right frame of mind for writing. Practicing Freewriting Most people need to practice freewriting several times before theyre able to make it work for them effectively. So be patient. Try freewriting as a regular exercise, perhaps three or four times a week, until you find that you can write without rules comfortably and productively.